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  Clinical Studies on Ganoderma Lucidum
Studies on Ganoderma Lucidum and Specific Cancers
Studies on Ganoderma Lucidum and Cancer Biology
 

Bladder

Ling-Zhi polysaccharides potentiate cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs against drug-resistant urothelial carcinoma cells.
Huang CY et al
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2010
The authors use biochemical extractions of Ganoderma spores to show that a
polysaccharide fraction (LZP-F3) has cytotoxic effects on human bladder cells. The polysaccharide caused cell division arrest, by inducing a protein called P38.

The dual roles of Ganoderma antioxidants on urothelial cell DNA under
carcinogenic attack

J.W.M Yuen et al
Jounal of Ethnopharmacology 2008
Interesting paper showing that anti-oxidants in Ganoderma spores had protective effect on bladder cell DNA exposed to carcinogenic compounds. One way the spores would help to prevent cancer or to treat it could be as a source of specific and powerful anti-oxidants.

Telomerase-associated apoptotic events by mushroom ganoderma lucidum on premalignant human urothelial cells
Yuen JW et al
Nutrion & Cancer 2008
Study linking Ganoderma extracts to anti-oxidant and telomerase-inhibition/apoptosis . By inhibiting telomerase, which affects the critical parts of the chromosome ends, the spores seem to trigger apoptosis in cell death in human bladder cancer cells.

Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibit growth and induce actin polymerization in
bladder cancer cells in vitro

Qing-Yi Lu
Cancer Letters 2004
Experiments reveal that preparations of Ganoderma spores can inhibit the growth of human bladder cells. By studying the effects of the preparations on actin proteins, the scientists showed that Ganderma causes the proteins to polymerize excessively, leading to a blockage in the cell division

Blood

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide accelerates refractory wound healing by inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress in type 1 diabetes. 
Tie L, et al
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012

Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
Fenglin Li et al
Int J Mol Sci. 2011

Novel hypoglycemic effects of Ganoderma lucidum water-extract in obese/diabetic (+db/+db) mice.
Seto SW,et al.
Phytomedicine. 2009

Brain

Neuroprotective effect of preadministration with Ganoderma lucidum spore on rat hippocampus.
Zhou Y et al
Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2012

Activating mitochondrial regulator PGC-1α expression by astrocytic NGF is a therapeutic strategy for Huntington's disease.
Chen LW, et al
Neuropharmacology. 2012.

Ganoderma lucidum Protects Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration through Inhibition of Microglial Activation.
Zhang R et al
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011
Ganoderma lucidum extract protects dopaminergic neurons through inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators by activated microglia
Ding H, et al
Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2010

Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on the activities of mitochondrial dehydrogenases and complex I and II of electron transport chain in the brain of aged rats.
Ajith TA, Sudheesh NP,
Exp Gerontol 2009

Breast

Spore Powder of Ganoderma lucidum Improves Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Endocrine Therapy: A Pilot Clinical Trial
Hong Zhao, et al.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012
This clinical trial shows that Ganoderma spore powder relieved fatigue, anxiety and depression brought on by endocrine therapy in the test subjects. The spores had helpful effects on the immune system of the patients undergoing endocrine therapy with no side- effects

Ganoderic acid DM, a natural triterpenoid, induces DNA damage, G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.
Wu GS, et al.
Fitoterapia, 2012
Reveals that the active molecule in Ganoderma spores is a triterpernoid called ganoderic acid DM (GADM). It inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells. The compound blocked the cell division of the cancer cell, and caused them to undergo apoptosis (cell death).

Ganoderma lucidum extract induces G1 cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.
Wu G, et al
Am J Chin Med. 2012;

Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) inhibits cancer cell growth and expression of key
molecules in inflammatory breast cancer

Martinez-Montemayer MM, et al.
Nutrition and Cancer, 2011
This study shows that Ganoderma spore extract selectively kills metastatic inflammatory breast cancer cells, and with no effect on non-cancerous breast epithelial cells. The extract inhibited genes involved with cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis.

Effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) on inflammatory breast cancer
progression

Michelle Martinez-Montemayor et al
99th AACR (American Association for Cancer Research) Annual Meeting 2008 Abstract
Ganoderma inhibits inflammatory breast cancer progression by reducing cell
proliferation, preventing the formation of tumor emboli. Results show that Ganoderma is effective in inhibiting IBC progression.

Combined effect of green tea and Ganoderma lucidum on invasive behavior of breast cancer cells
Thyagarajan A et al
International Journal of Oncology 2007
Shows that Ganoderma extracts inhibited cancerous growth of breast cancer cells, and migration and adhesion. The extract blocked activity on an oncogene. The effects were even greater when combined into a green tea extract.

Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells by down-regulation of estrogen receptor and NF-kappaB signaling
Jiang J et al
International Journal of Oncology 2006
Collectively, these abstracts are part of a program which begins to explain how Ganoderma works. The authors show that the spores block specific biochemical pathways in breast cancer cells, resulting in cancer cell arrest. The authors implicate Ganoderma lucidum as a suitable herb for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of breast cancer.

Cervical

Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of novem ganoderic acid derivatives on human cervical cancer cells in vitro
Liu R M et al
Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology 2012
The authors show that several derivatives of ganoderic acid – the triterpene in Lingzhi with anti-cancer properties -  induce apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells.  One of them, termed TL TO-A, was most effective, allowing the authors to propose modifications of Lingzhi molecules for even more effective cancer treatment.

Ganoderic acid Mf and S induce mitochondria mediated apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells
Liu RM et al
Phytomedicine 2011
Two ganoderic acid isomers (structural variants of ganoderic acid) caused cell division arrest in human cancer cells growing in culture dishes.  The two isomers also induced apoptosis in the cancer cells.

Colon

Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoid extract induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells
Weimei Ruan et al
Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition 2012

Ganodermanontriol, a lanostanoid triterpene from Ganoderma lucidum, suppresses growth of colon cancer cells through ß-catenin signaling
Jedinak A et al
International Journal of Oncology 2011
Shows that a triterpene molecule from Ganoderma spores, called Ganodermanontriol (GL) stops division of human colon cancer cells.  It did this in cultures of cancer cells and in human adenocarcinoma cells growing in rats. The GL stopped cell division. 

p53 is important for the anti-invasion of ganoderic acid T in human carcinoma cells
Nian-Hong Chen et al
Phytomedicine 2011
This study shows that a protein called P53, which is involved in DNA surveillance, could be one target of Ganoderic acid, and this could inhibit growth of human colon cancer cells.

Ganoderic acid Me induces apoptosis through mitochondria dysfunctions in human colon carcinoma cells
Li Zhou et al
Process Biochemistry 2011
Another triterpene molecule of Ganoderma, called Ganoderic acid, causes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.  The apoptosis occured as a result of known changes in gene expression in the apoptosis pathway.  This is a second triterpene with anti-cancer activitity.

Effects of Ganoderic acid Me on inhibiting multidrug resistance and inducing apoptosis in multidrug resistant colon cancer cells
Zijing Jian et al
Process Biochemistry 2011
GA-Me effectively reverses multidrug resistance in colon cancer cells.

Triterpenes From Ganoderma Lucidum Induce Autophagy in Colon Cancer Through the Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Kinase (p38 MAPK) 
Thyagarajan A et al
Nutrition & Cancer 2010 
The authors show that triterpene extract from Ganoderma,  inhibits human colon cancer cell growth by blocking cell division.  They identify a specific signaling protein in the cancer cells (p38MAPK) that causes this arrest and conclude suggesting the use of Ganoderma as a natural product for the treatment of colon cancer

A water-soluble extract from culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia suppresses the development of colorectal adenomas.
Okas et al
Hiroshima Journal of Medical Science 2010 
Clinical study showing that Ganoderma water extract reduced size and number of colorectal adenomas over 12 months.

Ganoderic acid Me induces G1 arrest in wild-type p53 human tumor cells while G1/S transition arrest in p53-null cells,
Nian-Hong Chen, et al.
Process Biochemistry, 2009
Ganoderma (Ganoderic acid) was found to possess remarkable cytotoxicity on highly metastatic lung cancer and colon cancer cells.  The cytotoxicity results from blockage of cell division in the cancer cells.

Monitoring of immune responses to a herbal immuno-modulator in patients with advanced colorectal cancer
Chen X et al
International Immunopharmacology 2006
Clinical study with advanced colorectal cancer patients over a 12 week period given 5.4g of Ganderma per day.  41 out of the 47 patients showed increases in immune cells (lymphocytes), suggesting Ganoderma may have potential immuno-modulating effect in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

Ganoderma tsugae extracts inhibit colorectal cancer cell growth via G2/M cell cycle arrest
Shis-Chung Hsu et al
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2008
This study shows that Ganoderma extracts block cell division in human colorectal cancer cells.  Also that the extract caused tumor shrinkage in cancerous mice.

Ganoderma Lucidum extract inhibits proliferation of SW480 human colorectal cancer cells
J T Xie et al
Experimental Oncology 2006
A team at the University of Chicago exposed human colorectal cancer cells to Ganoderma spore extracts – a polysaccharide and a triterpene extract .They found that both had significant anti-proliferation effect on the cancer cells, the polysaccharide free extract especially so.  Other results show anti-oxidant properties underlying the anti-tumor activity of both extracts.

Heart

Ganoderma lucidum ameliorate mitochondrial damage in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats by enhancing the activities of TCA cycle enzymes and respiratory chain complexes.
Sudheesh NP et al
Int J Cardiol. 2013

Ganoderma liucidum P.l Karst enhances activities of heart mitochondrial enzymes and respiratory chanin complexes in the aged rat.
NP Sudheesh el,
Biogerontology, 2009

Antioxidant activity of Ganoderma lucidum in acute ethanol-induced heart toxicity
Kar-Lok Wong et al, 2005

A phase I/II study of ling zhi mushroom ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.: Fr.) LIoyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) extract in patients with coronary heart disease -
Gao, et al  2004, 'A phase I/II study of lingzhi mushroom ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.: Fr.) LIoyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) extract in patients with coronary heart disease
Int’l J of Med Mushrooms 2004

Kidney

Ganoderma extract prevents albumin-induced oxidative damage and chemokines synthesis in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells.
Lai KN, Chan LY, Tang SC, Leung JC.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006

Leukemia

Ganoderma lucidum induced apoptosis in NB4 human leukemia cells: involvement of Akt and Erk.
Diez JC et al, Universidad de Alcala, Spain
Eva Calvino,  et al.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2010
Building on studies elsewhere, the authors investigate how Ganoderma extract leads to leukemia cell apoptosis.  These show that the extract causes reduction in the levels of anti-apoptosis proteins in the leukemia cells thereby causing them to die.

Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Induce Macrophage-Like Differentiation in Human Leukemia THP-1 Cells via Caspase and p53 Activation
Jia-Wei Hsu et al
Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2009
Results show that Ganoderma polysaccharide F3 can cause human leukemia cells to differentiate into macrophages, thus ending uncontrolled cell division. The same group has also shown that F3 can lead to apoptosis.  They suggest that the Ganoderma polysaccharide F3 can bring cancer to an end whether by cell differentiation or cell death.

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic leukemia cells into dendritic cells with immuno-stimulatory function 
Chan WK, et al.
Journal of Hematology & Oncology 2008
Authors showed that preparations of Ganoderma polysaccharides could cause human leukemia cells to differentiate into other cells with immunotherapeutic activities.  Somehow, compounds in the Ganoderma re-directed the leukemia cells to become cells able to enhance the function of the immune system.

Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells
Claudia I. Muller, et al.
Leukemia Research, 2006
Using 26 human cancer cell lines, the authors show that Ganoderma extracts cause many of them to stop dividing.  Leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines were most sensitive to the Ganoderma extracts.  The extract blocked the cell division at the G21M stage. 

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in human monocytic leukemia cells: from gene expression to network construction 
Cheng KC, et al.
BMC Genomics, 2007
Results show that a polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma spores, called F3 is responsible for anti-tumor activity.  F3 binds to the surface of human leukemia cells and triggers apoptosis (cell death) in them.

Liver

Inhibitory Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on Tumorigenesis and Metastasis of Human Hepatoma Cells in Cells and Animal Models 
Chia-Jui Weng et al
Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemisty 2009
This study shows that Ganoderma extracts block specific signaling pathways inside human liver cancer cells.  Also that the extract reduced the occurence of cancer in mice given human cancer cells.

Effects of Ganoderma lucidum spores on HepG2 cells proliferation and growth cycle
Li L et al
Zhong Yao Cai 2008
Ganoderma spores inhibit human hepatoma tumor cell proliferation in G2 phase of cell cycle, and in high doses stops metastesis.

Antihepatoma activity of the acid and neutral components from Ganoderma lucidum.
Lu H, et al
Phytother Res. 2012

The polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum: Are they always inhibitors on human hepatocarcinoma cells?
Liu YJ et al
Carbohydr Polym. 2012

Free radical scavenging and mitochondrial antioxidant activities of Reishi- Ganoderma lucidum (Curt: Fr) P. Karst and Arogyapacha-Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn extracts
E. Cherian,  et al
J Basic and Clin Phys and Pharm. 2011

Post-treatment of Ganoderma lucidum reduced liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide in mice.
Wu YW et al
Phytother Res. 2010

Ganoderma lucidum protects liver mitochondrial oxidative stress and improves the activity of electron transport chain in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats.
Sudheesh NP, et al
Exp Gerontol. 2009

Hepatoprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum peptides against D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice.
Shi Y et al,
J Ethnopharmacol. 2008

Hepatoprotective role of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide against BCG-induced immune liver injury in mice.
Zhang GL, et al.
World J Gastroenterol. 2002

Beta-glucuronidase-inhibitory activity and hepatoprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum.
Kim DH et al
Biol Pharm Bull. 1999

Longevity

Ganodermasides C and D, two new anti-aging ergosterols from spores of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.
Weng Y, et al
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem..2011

The lifespan-promoting effect of acetic acid and Reishi polysaccharide.
Chuang MH et al,
Bioorg Med Chem. 2010

Ganodermasides A and B, two novel anti-aging ergosterols from spores of a medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum on yeast via UTH1 gene.
Weng Y,et al.
Bioorg Med Chem 2010

Lung

Ling Zhi-8 mediates p53-dependent growth arrest of lung cancer cells proliferation via the ribosomal protein S7-MDM2-p53 pathway
Wu CT et al
Carcinogenesis 2011
The authors show that a protein termed LZ-8 in Ganoderma, rather than a polysaccharide or a triterpene, blocks growth of human lung cancer cells.  They suggest that the LZ-8 stimulates the activity of a protein in the cancer cells that surveys the DNA and pushes cancer cells into apoptosis.

Effect of Ganoderma on drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant small-cell lung carcinoma cells.
David Sadava et al
Cancer Letters 2009
Multi drug resistance is a major problem in small cell lung cancer. The results from this study shows that  Ganoderma is cytotoxic to both drug-sensitive and drug-resistance small cell lung cancer cells treated with chemotherapeutic drugs, and can reverse resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs.

Ganoderic acid Me induces G1 arrest in wild-type p53 human tumor cells while G1/S transition arrest in p53-null cells,
Nian-Hong Chen, et al.
Process Biochemistry, 2009
Ganoderma (Ganoderic acid) was found to possess remarkable cytotoxicity on highly metastatic lung cancer and colon cancer cells.  The cytotoxicity results from blockage of cell division in the cancer cells.

Enhancement of IL-2 and IFN-gamma expression and NK cells activity involved in the anti-tumor effect of ganoderic acid Me in vivo  
Wang G et al
International Immunopharacology 2007
Shows that ganoderic acid, a lanostane triterpenoid in Ganoderma  is among the inhibitory molecules in a human lung cancer cell assay

Ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis in lung cancer cells
Wen Tang et al
Life Sciences 2006
The findings show that Ganoderma markedly induced apoptosis of metastatic lung tumor cells.  It did this through intrinsic pathway related to mitochondral dysfunction and p53 expression  (p53 , is a tumor suppressor protein that in humans is involved in preventing cancer)

A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study of Ganoderma lucidum
Yihuai Guo et al
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2003
68 patients with advanced lung cancer were given Ganoderma.  Compared to the control group, after 12 weeks these patients showed a significant increase in lymphocyte mitogenic reactivity (increase in natural killer cells).

Lymphoma

Cytotoxic action of Ganoderma lucidum on interleukin 3 dependent lymphoma DA-1 cells: involvement of apoptosis proteins
Calvino E et al
Phytotherapy Research 2011
Results showed a clear indication of induction of apoptosis (cancer cell death) in human lymphoma cells by compounds present in Ganoderma lucidum

Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells
Claudia I. Muller, et al.
Leukemia Research, 2006
Using 26 human cancer cell lines, the authors show that Ganoderma extracts cause many of them to stop dividing.  The Leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines were very sensitive to the Ganoderma extracts.  The extract blocked the cell division at the G21M stage. 

Melanoma 

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides antagonize the suppression on lymphocytes induced by culture supernatants of B16F10 melanoma cells 
Sun LX et al
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2011
Human tumor cells release growth factor proteins that suppress the immune system and the apoptosis that would otherwise detect them.  The authors show that Ganoderma polysaccharides block this suppression in human melanoma cells, allowing the immune cells to help to detect the melanoma.

Promoting Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides on B16F10 Cells to Activate Lymphocytes
Li-Xin Sun et al
Basick & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 2010
The immune system in patients with cancer often fails to control tumor growth because of deficient immunogenicity of tumor cells  Ganoderma polysaccarides are shown to activate lymphocyte proliferation in melanoma cells.

Multiple Myeloma

Inhibition of STAT3 signaling and induction of SHP1 mediate antiangiogenic and antitumor activities of ergosterol peroxide in U266 multiple myeloma cells 
Yun-Hee Rhee
BMC Cancer 2012
The authors show that a molecule called Ergosterol peroxide (EP) found in Ganoderma, inhibits a cellular signaling process known to be linked with tumorogenesis in human multiple myeloma cells.  Concluding as a potent cancer preventive agent for treatment of multiple myeloma cells.

Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells
Claudia I. Muller, et al.
Leukemia Research,  2006
Using 26 human cancer cell lines, the authors show that Ganoderma extracts cause many of them to stop dividing.  Leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines were most sensitive to the Ganoderma extracts.  The extract blocked the cell division at the G21M stage l 

Nose

Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on pollen-induced biphasic nasal blockage in a guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis.
Mizutani N,  et al
Phytother Res. 2012

Oral Cancer

Study of the Extraction Process and In Vivo Inhibitory Effect of Ganoderma Triterpenes in Oral Mucosa Cancer
Yan Guo et al
Molecules 2011
The results of animal tests showed inhibitory effects of ganoderma triterpenes on oral mucosa cancer.

Ovarian Cancer

Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin.
Zhao S, et al.
International Journal of Oncology, 2011
Ganoderma arrests cell division in epithelial ovarian cancer cells, at G2/M phase of cell cycle. Overall, the findings suggest that Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and can enhance the sensitivity of the cancers cells to cisplatin (chemotherapy drug)

Modulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on serum antioxidant enzymes activities in ovarian cancer rats 
YouGuo, et al.
Carbohydrate Polymers, 2009
When Ganoderma polysaccharides were fed to rats with ovarian cancer, the levels of antioxidants in the blood increased, significantly reducing MDA production and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity.  The authors speculate that the antioxidants are part of the anti-tumor effects of the spores.  This study supports the view that Ganoderma polysaccharides are among the active ingredients of the spores.

Pancreas

In vitro and in vivo protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on alloxan-induced pancreatic islets damage
Hui-Na Zhang et al
Life Sciences 2003
Results show that Ganoderma polysaccharides protects against free radical damage in pancreas cells. One of the mechanisms is through its scavenging ability to protect the pancreative islets from free radical damage induced by alloxan. 

Prostate Cancer

Ganoderic Acid DM: An Alternative Agent for the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer
Benjamin M. Johnson et al
The Open Prostate Cancer Journal 2010
This is a review of the effect of ganoderic acid (from Ganoderma) on human prostate cancer cells.  The summary is that GA is toxic to the cancer cells, whether they need male hormones to grow or not.  The GA also reduced the spread of the prostate cancer cells to the bone.

Ganoderic acid DM: Anti-androgenic osteoclastogenesis inhibitor
Jie Liu et al
The Open Bioactive Compounds Journal 2009
Ganoderic acid, a triterpene from Ganoderma spores, inhibits prostate cancer cells.  The authors show that GA block the receptors on the cancer cells for male hormones, so that the cells cannot divide. Prostate cancer has a high incidence of bone metastasis. Ganoderic acid DM can block osteoclastogenesis.

Androgen receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms mediate Ganoderma lucidum activities in LNCaP prostate cancer cells   
Ben-Zion Zaidman et al
International Journal of Oncology 2007
Ganoderma spore extracts trigger apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.  The extracts activate caspases in the cancer cells.  These are proteases that bring about cell disassembly in cancer cells (apoptosis).

Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-B1 from prostate cancer cells
Gwenaelle Stanley et al
Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communication 2005
The authors show that Ganoderma extracts block the development of blood vessels needed to supply prostate cancer cells with oxygen and nutrients, causing the prostate cancer to die.  They also reveal that the extracts do this by inhibiting a key signaling molecule in the prostate cancer cells themselves.

STOMACH /GASTRIC CANCER

Recombinant Lz-8 from Ganoderma lucidum induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagic cell death in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells.
Lian et al
Oncology Report 2012
A protein in Ganoderma (LZ-8) induces cell death in human gastric cancer cell lines. 

Anti-invasive Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum through Tightening of Tight Junctions and Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells.
Jang KJ et al
Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies 2011
Ganoderma extracts suppress invasiveness of human stomach adenocarcinoma cells.

Induction of apoptosis by ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in human gastric carcinoma cells
Jang KJ et al
Journal of Acupuncutre & Meridian Studies 2010
Ganoderma extracts trigger apoptosis in human stomach cancer cells in culture.

Regression of gastric large B-Cell lymphoma accompanied by a florid lymphoma-like T-cell reaction: immunomodulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi)?
Wah W Cheuk et al 2007 
Report of a complete regression of a high-grade lymphoma likely due to Ganoderma stimulating t-cell production.

Summary of Human Trials (with cancer):
Scientists and medical doctors have started to publish their human trials on cancer. You will read their papers on this site. 

Acute Myeloblastic Leukaemia (2004, Teow Sun-Soo) – patients took high doses of Ganoderma while undergoing chemotherapy.  All the patients experienced changes in their WBC, haemoglobin and platelet counts which were either significant or very significant after 3 months of treatment.

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (2004 Teow Sun-Soo) – patients with stage 3 cancer experienced complete remission of their cancer (significant tumor shrinkage after 40 days of combined chemotherapy and Ganoderma and complete regression after 90 days)  Reduced side-effects were observed regarding nausea/vomiting and pain and increased energy, sleep and appetite were also observed.

Advanced Lung Cancer (Gao Y et al, Massey University, NZ 2004ol) – 68 patients with advanced lung cancer were given Ganoderma for 12 weeks..  Compared to the control group, after 12 weeks these patients showed a significant increase in lymphocyte mitogenic reactivity (increase in natural killer cells).

Advanced-stage Cancer (Gao Y. et al, massey University, NZ 2003) – 34 patients with advanced stage cancer were given Ganoderma for 12 weeks.  Results showed significantly enhanced immune responses  which ordinarily are reduced or damanged in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy. This confirms the in vivo studies that Ganoderma polysaccarhides are able to activate macrophages, T lymphocytes and NK cells.

 
This website presents an up-to-date selection of the most important Ganoderma research discoveries of recent years, with a focus on cancer research.